Personality - Syllabus and Study Material

According to Valentine, “Personality is the sum total of innate and acquired dispositions.
Munn Said, “Personality may be defined as the most characteristic intergration of an individual’s structures, modes of behaviour, interests, attitudes, capacities, abilities and aptitudes.”
Boring opined, “Personality is an individual consistent adjustment to his behaviour.”
Cattell Said, “Personality is that pursuits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation.”

Factors Influencing Development of Personality – Psychology is related to the factors which influence development of personality. These factors are related to physical form, heredity and environment. Personality is not affected by only one factor. One person is influenced by one factor and the other is influenced by some other. These factors can be classified as:

Biological and Hereditary Factors

Environment Factors

Psychological Factors

Kinds of Personality

  • Classification of Jung
    1. Extroverts
    2. Introvert
    3. Ambivert
  • Classification By Kretschner
    1. Pyknic
    2. Athletic
    3. Displastic
    4. Displastic


  • Sheldon’s Classification
    1. Meromorphic
    2. Mesmorphic
    3. Ectomorphic
  • Eysenck Classification
    1. Extrovert
    2. Introvert
    3. Phychoticism
    4. Neuroticism

Can Personality be measured?

It is not possible to measure personality accurately. We can measure cloth, milk, etc. but we do not have any metre to measure personality. We need a zero as a starting point to measure things. But no individual’s personality has a zero point. Secondly we use the word ‘development’ with personality and development cannot be measured because it is changing. But on the basis of personality test, measurement can be done. There are in fact, three methods which are used to measure personality, there are

(A) Subjective Method

  1. Autobiography
  2. Case History
  3. Interview Method
  4. Questionnaire Method

(B) Objective Method

  1. Observation Method
    • Controlled observation
    • Uncontrolled observation
  2. Situational test
  3. Rating Scale
  4. Socio-metric Method
  5. Personality Inventory

(C) Projective Method

  1. Rorschach’s Ink Blot Test
  2. Thermatic Apprecialtion Test (TAT)
  3. Children Apreciation Test
  4. Sentence Completion Test
  5. World Association Test
  6. Free Association Test
  7. Features of Handwriting
  8. Story Telling and Story Completion Test
  9. Personality measurement

  • Word Association Test
  • Sentence Completion
  • Rorschach Ink-Blot Test
  • Thematic Apperception
  • Test (T.A.T.) and (C.A.T.)
    1. Play way Technique
    2. Drawing and Painting
    3. Hand writing-Analysis
    4. Photography study
    5. Assessment through
      Voice, Speech and Tone
  1. Observation Technique
  2. Personality Inventories
  3. Situational Tests
  4. Personality Rating
  5. Interview
  6. Socio-metric Tests
  7. Case study
  8. M.M.P.I.
  9. E.P.P.S.
  10. Cumulative records

Assisting Children with Special Needs

Providing for Emotionally and Behaviorally Challenged Students
The following techniques can be especially effective with students exhibiting emotional and behavioral challenges.

  • Planned Ignoring. Behaviours aimed at attention getting and do not spread or interfere with safety or class functioning, are most effectively stopped through planned ignoring (such as in Raman’s case). This technique should never be used with aggressive behaviours. The class may need to be taught to do this as well, since peer attention can be even more powerful than adult attention for some students.
  • Signal interference. If a student is calm enough to respond, has a positive relationship with the teacher, and is free from uncontrollable pathological impulses, a non-verbal signal may be all that it is necessary to assist him or her in regaining focus. See the section on non-verbal cueing presented above
  • Proximity and touch control. Moving closer to a student in distress or placing a hand on the shoulder can be effective in showing support in a non-threatening way. When using this technique, refrain from pointing out inappropriate behaviour. Comment positively on anything that the student does that shows compliance.
  • Interest boosting. Change the tempo or activity, comment on the student’s work, or inquire about a known interest related to the assignment if a student shows signs of restlessness.
  • Strong affection. Express genuine affection for, or appreciation of, a student to assist the student in regarding self-control.
  • Easing tension through humour. As noted above, humour can often stop undesirable behaviour if it is used in a timely and positive manner. Sarcasm, cynicism, and aggression are not appropriates uses of humour.
  • Hurdle help. Before a student begins to misbehave, assist him or her with a difficult section of an assignment or task. Reassure him or her that you are willing to help, and together you can solve the problem
  • Regrouping. Change the seating arrangement or the small-group assignments of students to avoid specific problems. Do this in a non-punitive and, if possible, undetectable way. See the section on “making the learning environment comfortable” earlier in this document for ideas.
  • Restructuring. If an activity is not successful, change it as quickly as possible. It is important to always have a backup plan. Sometimes it is best to move from an interactive game to one that requires no interaction. This can be done smoothly and non-punitively when a group is becoming over-stimulated. At other times, offering a choice might be more effective. Students could choose to cover information orally through discussion or copy notes from an overhead, for example.
  • Direct appeal. If a student or group has a positive relationship with the teacher, It is sometimes effectives just to ask that a behaviour stop due to the problems that it is creating. No consequence or reward is intended or implied. This is a simple straightforward request from one person to another.
  • Prevention. Remove a student from a distressing situation before inappropriate behaviour occur, such as asking him or her to assist you in distributing papers or taking attendance. Be careful not to inadvertently reward a student who is instigating a problem.
  • Support from routine. As we learned earlier, schedules and routines are important behaviour management interventions. Knowing what to do and when to do it provides structure, security and predictability in the lives of students who may not experience such support in other areas of their lives.

Simple Ways to Help Children with “Special Needs

Tips for Teachers
To Improve Attention
Seat students near the front Seat student near good role model who can be a “peer study buddy”
Cut assignments into segments giving a student one segment at a time (for instance, rather than giving a full page of math problems, which might discourage a student, cut the paper in half and ask the student the complete one half, and then turn it in; then give the student the other half.)
Use cueing to regain student’s attention (for example, holding up brightly coloured paper, tapping on desk, touching shoulder)
Establish eye contract before giving instructions Give short direct instructions using both visual and oral cues when possible

To Reduce Impulsiveness

  • Ignore minor inappropriate behaviors
  • Give immediate reinforcements or consequences
  • Supervise transition between classes or activities
  • Acknowledge positive behaviors when possible
  • Set up contract for behaviors that need monitoring
  • Help child learn self-Monitoring techniques

To Deal with Hyperactivity

  • Allow students to stand at times
  • Allow to run errands

To improve Academic success

  • Provide extra time to complete work
  • Shorten assignments
  • Use multi- sensory methods of teaching (visual, oral and tactile)
  • Remind student to check work to see if it is completed
  • Help student, learn self-monitoring techniques
  • Use daily assignment sheets

To improve Organizational Skills

  • Enlist parents help
  • Use daily assignment sheets
  • Use one notebook for everything
  • Check notebook often and positively reinforce good notebooks

Classroom Management and Teaching Modifications

Other Useful techniques include the following :

  • Reduce or alternate assignments
  • Extend time lines for when work is to be completed
  • Use special materials that encourage and enhance
  • Abilities, such as graph paper, felt tip markers, special lined paper, etc.
  • Use more visuals
  • Read a test orally
  • Use multiple choice or true/false versions of tests in lieu of essay completion
  • Ask for oral reports (as opposed to written)
  • Accept special projects in lieu of reports
  • Provide a multiplication matrix and other matrices
  • Provide a list of commonly misspelled words
  • Develop a performance contract between teacher, child, and parent
  • Give credit for class participation
  • Give one-step, short, simple directions
  • Call a student’s name to remind him/her that he/she will answer next question
  • Use highlighting and colour coding to help a student get the main point of information
  • Above all, use frequent, positive reinforcement! Its benefits can last a lifetime!!
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