Critical Perspective of the Construct of Intelligence

Critical Perspective of the Construct of Intelligence - Syllabus and Study Material


Woodworth – “Intelligence is the capacity to acquire capacity,.”
Terman – Intelligence is the ability to abstract thinking”
Spearman – “Intelligence is rational thinking.”
Binet – “Intelligence is a capacity to think well, to judge well and to be self-critical.”
Educational Dictionary – “Intelligence indicates the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.”

Characteristics of Intelligence

The various characteristics of intelligence are as under:

  • Intelligence is inborn. It cannot be acquired.
  • Intelligence of every person is different.
  • Intelligence does not differ due to sex differences.
  • Environment training and education also affect it.
  • Heredity affects intelligence.
  • Intelligence and knowledge are closely related.
  • It helps in learning and in adjustment.
  • Environment also affect it.
  • It helps in solving complex problems.
  • It is an ability to gather experience.
  • Is an ability to do intellectual works.
  • It is an ability to face social situations,
  • It is a group of abilities.
  • It is not knowledge but is related to knowledge.I
  • t is not talent. It is basic ability and practiced skill.
  • It is not memory.
  • It is not a skill. Skill can be learnt but not intelligence.

Multi- Dimensional Intelligence

Theories of Intelligence: To understand the nature and form of intelligence, different theories are as under :

  • Unitary Theory or Monarchic Theory
  • Group Factor Theory or Oligarchic Theory
  • Multiple Factor Theory or Anarchic Theory
  • Two Factor Theory or Eclectic Theory
  • Theory of Primary Mental Ability
  • Kelley’s Theory of Intelligence

Measurement of Intelligence
We are only familiar with that intelligence of an individual which is manifested by him on an intelligence test or tests. Psychologists have devised so many such tests for the measurement of intelligence.

Classification of Intelligence Tests
1. As far-as the administrative point of view is concerned the intelligence tests can be classified into two broad categories namely –

  • Individual Test: In which only one individual in tested at a time.
  • Group Test: In which a group of individual is tested at a time.

2. Another way of classifying the intelligence tests is based on the form of the test. According there are two types of tests.

  • Verbal tests or Language Tests: These tests make use of language. Here the instructions are given in words (either in written or oral form or both). Individuals are required to use languages as well as paper and pencil for giving the reponses. The test content is loaded with verbal material.
  • Non-verbal Tests or Non-Language Tests: These tests involve such activities in which the use of language is not necessary. The use of language is eliminated from test content and response except in giving directions.

The typical examples of such non-verbal tests are Performance Tests.
The principal characteristics of these tests are given below:

  • Test contents of these are in the form of material objects.
  • What an’ Individuals has to do is indicated by the tester either through oral instructions or by pantomime or sings.
  • Individual’s responses depends upon what he does or performs rather than by anything he says or writes.
  • Generally these tests are individual tests. As Dr. Pillai observes, “These cannot be used as group tests, chiefly because it is necessary to supervise the individual testee at work and give him necessary direction.”

Intelligence Tests

It we try to have a final picture of all types of tests in intelligence we will have to keep in view both the ways of classifying them as mentioned above. All these types of intelligence tests can be represented
Diagrammatically as follows:

Difference Between Individual Tests and Group Tests

Individual Tests Group Tests
These test can be used both on child and adult These tests can be used on a definite age group
They used on groups. They cannot be used on individuals
It needs trained and experienced psychologists. Its does not need so
It takes less time It is time consuming
They are not very specific They are specific
Their reliability cannont be extended. It can be extended
They provide extra information. They do not
They are expensive They are cheap
Child feel nervous Children are relaxed
There is a close contact between examiner and student There is no contact between two
Child do not free free. Children are totally free
There are many problem in the process of building the process Not the care
Thete are less questions. There are manny questions
Teacher can study the good and bad points of the stuidents It is not possible
There is no time limit. Time is definite


Difference Between Verbal Tests and Non-Verbal Tests

Verbal Tests Non-Verbal Tests
Language or words are used. Pictures, abstract objects etc. are used.
Cannot be ussed on illiterates. Can be used on blind, deaf, dumb and uneducated person.
Cannot be useed on slow learners. Can be used on every typs of boy
Cannot be used on very small children Can be used
An individuals different merits can not be compared Can be compared
Gets affected by books Does not get affected by books
It cannot tell about abstract mind. It can do so
It is written but not reliable. It is more reliable test.
The child mind remains affected by culture These tests make mind evalutions more reliable

Uses of Intelligence Test

Intracing Feeble Minde Child
In dealing with Delinquents
For the Purpose of Selection
Classification of Pupils
Helpful in School System
For Educatiuons Guidance
For Vocational Guidance
Extra Promotion
Guidance of Learning Activity
Understanding Personality
Study of Sex Differences
Useful in Industry
To Study National and Racial Differences
To Increase Aspiration Level
Social Adjustment
Learning Pace
Useful in Research
Estimate of Teacher's Success
For Knowing One's Potentiality

Concept of Mental Age (M.A.) and Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.)
As we have used above the terms mental age and I.Q. in the interpretation of intelligence test results, it is worth-while to know something about them.

Mental Age: The term mental age was used by Binet first of all. What is this concept can be clarified through the following examples.
Suppose there is a test Which has 100 questions (like Jalota’s test) and suppose the majority of the subjects whose age is 13 years 6 months, answer successfully 48 questions, then as individual who earns a score 48, regardless of his chronological age, will be said to have a mental age of 13 years 6 months.

Intelligence Quotient (L.Q): This tern was initiated by the German Psychologist William Stern and put into wide practice by Terman. It appeared to Stern that if a child was 6 years old (chronologically), but could do what an 8 years old normally does he would be 8/6 or 1.33 as bright as the average. And in this ways, he made the ratio M.A./C.A., Measure of the rate of mental development of an individual. The ratio was given the name of Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) – To do away with the decimal point the ratio was again multiplied by 100 and thus the formula to calculate I.Q. was known as

I.Q = \frac{Mental\:Age (M.A)}{cronological\: Age\: (C.A)}\times 100

Or I.Q = \frac{Attained\: or\: Actual\: score}{Expeced\: mean\: square\: for\: Age}\times 100

Classification of I.Q
By making use of the formula of I.Q. given by Stern, Terman Tried to classify the individual into certain specific categories on the basis of the data collected through the administration of his intelligence tests for terming them average, below average and above average as given below:

I.Q Level of intelligence
140 and above
Below 25
Gifted or Genius
Very superior
Normal or Average
Border Line and Dull


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Please comment on Critical Perspective of the Construct of Intelligence




  2. Gurvinder

    Nyc work thanx for gave us the information .but pls try to change the language while punjabi or hindi.


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