- Animals: Animals are a major group of multicellular eukaryotic organism of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. They are living thing that can move voluntarily.
- Classes of Animals
- Facts About Animals:
Birds have wings which help them to fly.
Snake do not have legs.
Reptiles can only crawl.
Lizards and crocodiles have four legs.
Cows and elephants eat plants while mice and hens eat food grains.
Lizards and frog eat insects.
Lions, tigers and wolves eat the flesh of other animals.
Frogs and crocodiles live both on land and in water.
Fishes and crocodiles live both on land and in water.
Fishes are kept in an aquarium.
Rabbits live in a hutch.
Dog sleeps in a kennel.
|Cows, Goats and Buffaloes||Milk|
|Hens and Ducks||Eggs|
|Hens, Goats, Crabs, Prawns, Fish||Flesh|
|Camels, Goats, Buffaloes, Snakes||Leather|
Any organism that belongs to kingdom plantae, which is characterized by following fundamental properties:
Ability to make its own food by photosynthesis presence of rigid cells walls apart from cell membrane multicellular lacking of the power of locomotion eukaryotic
Categories of Plants
|Height||Short, less than four feet||Medium-sized, less than Eight feet in height||Tall, many metres in height|
|Colour of the stem||Green||Brown||Brown|
|Thickness of the stream||Thin||Thin||Thick|
|Hardness of the stream||Soft||Hard||Very Hard|
|Examples||Tomato, Mustard, Sunflower||Lemon, China-rose, Rose Plant||Mango, Peepal,Gulmohar|
Climbers and Creepers
Plants with weak stem that cannot stand straight on their own and spread on the ground are called creepers. Plants like gourd, watermelon and mint are creepers.
Plants with weak stems that take the support of walls or other plants to climb are called climbers. Plants like pea and money plant are climbers.
Parts of a Plant: The part of a plant are divided into two main systems. These are
System (b) The shoot system.
- Root System: The part of the plant that grows mainly under the ground form the root system.
- Shoot System: The parts (like stem, leaves, flowers and fruits) that remain above the ground form the shoot system.
Root: The part of the plant that grows under the ground is called root.
- Tap root: A single root comes out from the seeds after germination. Examples are roots of mango, neem, pine, carrots and radish.
- Fibrous root: In some plants, we see a bunch of thin, fibre like roots of similar size coming out of the base of the stem. These are called fibrous roots. Grass, maize, wheat, onion and rice are examples of plants in which fibrous roots are found.
Function of Roots
- Roots spread out into the soil and hold the plant firmly to the ground.
- Roots absorb water and mineral salts from the soil and pass them into the stem.
- Roots prevent soil erosion.
Stem: Stem is known as trunk of tree. Most of the trunk are covered with a tough outer layer called bark.
Function of stem
- The stem bears and supports the branches, leaves, flowers and fruits.
- The stem helps in the conduction of water and mineral salts absorbed by the roots of the plant.
Buds: The small outgrowths on the stem of a plant are buds. Buds are two types-terminal and axillary.
Node: The part of a stem where a leaf arises is called node.
Internode: The region of stem between the two adjacent nodes is called internode.
Leaf: The leaf is flattened, thin, green lateral structure attached to the stem. It is also known as the kitchen of the plants as it manufactures food with the help of chlorophyll present in it.
Parts of a leaf:
- Petiole: Leaf is attached to the stem by means of a stalk called petiole.
- Lamina: The flat, green portion of the leaf is called the lamina or leaf blade.
- Midrib: Thick petiole in the centre of a leaf is known as midrib.
- Veins: The midrib on either side, branches out as veins to form a network. The veins transport water, minerals and food.
Functions of a leaf:
- Manufacture of food: Process of making food by green plants is called photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide + water and mineral → Chlorophyll(leaf) and sunlight → Glucose + Oxygen
- Exchange of gases by stomata [Numerous tiny openings in leaves under their surfaces]
- Transpiration: The loss of water through the stomata is called transpiration
Flowers: Flowers are the most beautiful part of a plant. Flowers contain reproductive organs of plants.
Parts of a flower are pedicel, sepals, petals, stamens and pistil.
The main function of the flower is to produce fruits and seeds. The fruits and seeds are formed in a flower by the process of pollination and fertilization.
- Pollination: The transfer of pollen grains from another to the stigma of a pistil is called pollination.
- Fertilization: The fusion of male and female sex-cells is called fertilization.
Sources of food
Food is the substance, from which an organism derives energy and material for growth and maintenance. It also protects the body form several diseases and keeps it fit and healthy.
Nutrient is a substance, which an organism obtains from surroundings for deriving energy and materials for its growth and maintenance.
Nutrition is a process of intake and utilization of nutrients by an organism.
Seeds as source of food:
- Cereal grains: Cereals like rice, wheat, maize, barely (jay), millets (bajra), are rich source of energy and are the most important source of food obtained from the plants.
Wheat is used for making chapattis, breads and cakes.
Rice is consumed as such and also used for making idlis and dosas.
- Pulses (dals): They contain proteins which are necessary for the growth of body for example, black gram(Urad), Kidney beans (rajma), pigeon pea (arhar), green gram (moong), gram (chana) and soyabean.
- Nuts: They are rich source of fats. For example, groundnuts, walnuts, cashewnuts, peanuts, almonds and pistachio.
- Oils: Plants are main source of edible oil. Most of the oils are extracted from seeds such as mustard, soya bean, groundnut, olive oils and almonds used for cooking food.
- Spices: Spices add flavor to on food. For example, mustard, (sarson), black dumin seeds (jeera), cardamon and fenugreek.
- Beverages: Any drink other than water is called beverage.
Coffee is obtained from its seed called coffee beans, present in fruits known as berries.
Fruits as source of food:
- Fruits: Fruits are consumed raw and required no cooking and are thus easy source of nutrients. For example, banana, apple, grapes, apricot, guava, litchi, orange, mangoes, papaya, water melon and coconut.
- Vegetables: Cucumber (Khira), tomato, bittergourd (Kerela), Bottlegourd (lauki) and okra (bhindi) are fruits but are used as salads or as cooked food.
- Spices: Red pepper, red chillies and black pepper.
Leaves as sources of food: Leaves are the sites of synthesis of food and are very nutritious.
- Vegetables: For example, cabbage, spinach, bathua, methi, and lettuce.
- Spices: For example, balm, basil, and peppermint.
Roots as source of food: Roots are easily digestible and have high energy contents.
- Vegetables: Sweet potato, carrot, raddish, and beet.
- Spices: Ginger and turmeric.
Stem as source of food:
- Vegetables: Onion, potato, garlic and colocasia (arvi).
- Spices: Sugarcane.
Flowers as source of food:
- Vegetables: Cauliflower and broccoli.
- Spices: clove and saffron.
Animals as source of food: Food products obtained from animals contain the nutrients, which we do not get from plants.
- Milk: Buffalo’s milk is richer in nutrients in comparison to cow milk.
India is the largest producer of milk in the world.
- Oils: cod liver oil is highly nutritious oil and is obtained from fishes.
- Honey: Honeybees gives us honey. Honey has good medicinal value as it helps in treating common diseases like cough and cold.
Components of food
Good, nutritious food, along with good dietary habits, results in sound health and good mental development.
We all need for following purposes:
To obtain energy that is required to perform various activities. Energy also maintains body temperature.
For proper growth and development of body.
For repairing of damaged and injured body cell and tissues.
To synthesize cell components.
To protect body from diseases and infections.
The essential nutrition or components of food are:
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.
Carbohydrates and fats produce energy.
Proteins are required for growth and repair.
Vitamins and minerals fight diseases and helps in performing various functions of body.
- Carbohydrates consists up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are chief source of energy.
Sources: Only from plants like wheat, rice, bajra, maize, banana and potato.
Importance: During respiration, carbohydrates react with oxygen, get oxidized and produce energy.
- Proteins are known as body building foods and are the most important component of food. They are rich in nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and iron. They are made up of simple units called amino acids and they are the building blocks of our body.
Sources: From both plants and animal. Plant sources are pulses, maize, cereal, pea, soya bean, almonds, ground nut and cashew nut.
Animal sources are milk, egg, cheese and fish.
Requirement of proteins per day depends upon the age, sex and body weight of the person.
(a) From oxygen carrying blood pigment called haemoglobin.
(b) Important constituents of skins, hair and nails and many enzyme.
(c) Manufacture antibodies, which-help to fight infections.
(d) Help in regulating body functions and in the repair of damaged body parts
(e) Constituent of enzymes, which help in digestion of food.
- Fats, also known as lipids, consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They contain less oxygen as compared t carbohydrates and thus produce more energy. They are richest source of energy.
Sources: From both plants and animals. Plants sources are nuts, seeds of mustard and sunflower and soya beans. Animals sources are meat, egg yolk, milk, cheese and butter.
(a) Excess fats is stored in liver, bones and muscles in our body for future use. i.e., during starvation and fasting.
(b) Insulates our body against loss of heat and protects against shocks.
(c) Constituents of many important hormones.
Carbohydrates and fats containing foods are called energy giving foods.
- Vitamins are organic substances. They do not produce energy but are essential for good health and growth of the body.
Vitamins: Sources, Importance, Deficiency Diseases and Symptoms
|Vitamin A||Milk, butter, eggs. Cod Liver oil, tomatoes, green, Leafy vegetables||Keeps eyes and skin healthy||Night blindness||Inability to see in dims light|
|Vitamin B||Sea food, fish, meat, milk,Pea, cereals||For healthy nervous, and digestive system And normal growth and Development||Beri-Beri||Malfunctioning of nervous system|
|Vitamin C||Citrus fruits, tomatoes, Green leafy vegetables and amla||Keeps teeth and gums healthy||Scurvy||Swelling and bledding|
|Vitamin D||Sunlight, milk, butter, Green vegetables, cod Liver oil||For healthy teeth and bones||Rickets||Softening and Deformed bones|
|Vitamin E||Milk butter, vegetables||Keep teeth and bones Healthy||Neurological disorder||Reduction in reflexes,loss of coordination and Control|
|Vitamin K||Soyabean and green Vegetables||Helps in blood clotting||Hemorrhagic condition||Blood does not clot|
Vitamin B and C are water soluble and are removed by body through urine.
Vitamin A, D, E and K are fat soluble. If taken is excess an stored in the body.
Vitamin D is synthesized in body in the presence of sunlight.
- Minerals are inorganic in nature, i.e., they are metals, non-metals or their salts.
Minerals: sources, Importance, deficiency diseases and symptoms
Minerals: Sources, Importance, Deficiency Diseases and Symptoms
|Iron||Green, vegetables like spinach, apple, wheat,grains, turnip, meat, Eggs.||Formation of haemoglobin.||Anaemia||Reduced number of RBCs and weakness|
|Calcium||Green vegetables milk and milk products, eggs||For strong bones and teeth||Rickets||Bleeding and swollen gums and weak bones and bones|
|Phosphorus||Eggs, meat, fish whole grains||For strong bones and teeth||Rickets||Weakening of teeth and bones|
|Iodine||Sea food and iodised salt||For proper functioning goitre of thyroid gland||Goitre||Swelling of thyroid gland and mental disability in children|
Sodium and potassium are required for contraction of muscles and nerve condition.
Water is also important component of food. Helps in transporting food materials, waste materials, gases, hormones and enzymes from one part of the body to the other.
Medium for a number of chemical reaction taking place in body.
Maintains body temperature.
- Roughage consists of indigestible fibrous food material. It helps in the proper functioning of our digestion system.
Sources: Plant products contain cellulose, which cannot be digested by human beings.
Importance: Cellulose acts as roughage in our body and keeps our body movement and thus digestive system normal.
Roughage absorbs large amount of water and retains it in our body.
Also it makes the passage of food smooth, helps in easy defeeation an thus prevents constipation.
- Important Facts:
A diet, which contains all the nutrients required by our body and that too in adequate quantities is called balanced diet.
If any of the nutrients is lacking or its less than the amount require in our diet, then it can read to various abnormalities and disease. Such abnormalities or deficiency disease are called deficiency diseases.
Deficiency of carbohydrates lead to lack of energy i.e. weakness, lack of stamina, laziness and lethargy.
Kwashiorkor: A child may suffer from kwashiorkor if the diet of the mother is deficient in protein.
Symptoms: Body becomes dark, dry and cracked.
Swelling of body due to retention of water.
Thinning of limbs.
- Marasmus: It occurs due to the prolonged deficiency of both proteins and carbohydrates simulataneously in diet.
- Shrinking of body and thus wekning of muscles.
- Thin face and sunken eyes.
- Complete/partial arrest of growth.
Lack of fats leads to weakness, reduced stamina of body, laziness and lethargy.
Goitre is an abnormal enlargement of thyroid gland due to the deficiency of iodine. It is more common in hilly area. This is because the soil of hilly region is poor in iodine content. Dut to this, the drinking water as well as food growth in these areas are deficient in iodine.
Deficiency of vitamins in human body is called avitaminosis.
Anaemia: It occurs if the quantity of iron is too less in the diet. Iron is essential for formation of haemoglobin, which is present in red blood corpuscles of the blood, which is a carrier of oxygen.
Symptoms: Fatigue loss of appetite, white nails, pale skin and swelling of hands and feet.
Obesity: It occurs when one takes more food than needed. The extra food is stored as fat and the person becomes too fat. People suffering from obesity are much heart disease and circulatory problems.