Socialization Process - Syllabus and Study Material
Like the adolescent and the adult, the child soon develops his heroes as well as his villains. Identification is important to the development of good social adjustment. A person must learn to discover who he is and what he believes in before he can relate successfully to the society in which he lives. In order to establish his identity, the child must first recognize himself as a member of his own species. As adults we sometimes overlook this very elementary point, we may even be surprised when we find that studies show that a dog raised with cats behaves as though he believes himself to be a cat. Much of the variation in behavior seen both between and within cultures is due to the process of socialization. The ego is created by socialization, enhanced perhaps by certain biological characteristics. This is seen in the development of masculine and feminine behavior characteristics. These social roles may even be reversed in certain primitive societies. Studies of the culturally privileged and of the deprived show that for the child the family is the most important agent of socialization. Social norms are established by local sub-cultures and the group sanctions what is and is not accepted. The child learns this gradually. He learns to conform to norms not only to avoid punishment, but also to gain approval and recognition.
If a child enjoys stable relationship during his first two years, he is then ready to identify with adults. Imitation becomes stronger at three and beyond. There is a distinction between identification and limitation, since a child may imitate someone without any strong identification is the attempt by the child to imitate aspects of a model’s behavior; he desires to be like the model in some respect.
Each human being develops his own concept of self, but he does so slowly. He learns “I” by the age of two and by three he has discovered that “You” are a person with feelings and rights also. Around the age of four, he begins to see himself in perspective as part of a larger group. If the child learns to accept himself, he learns to accepts others, this psychosocial development goes in infancy from dependency to trust; by four, the child has learned to cooperate, has developed some self controlled and also some doubt. The next two years can be called the play years, they bring out initiative.
Toward Feelings of Security
Let us make seven specific suggestion for parents trying to bring about a sense of security in their infant:
- The child must know that he is surrounded by love; he learns trust as his bodily needs are attended to. Understanding affection comes through constructive effort, not by a smothering blind devotion. Small babies can become crying trying if their smallest whims are humored. Mothers soon learn to differentiate between cries that need attention and those that can be ignored.
- If a mother approaches an activity – feeding, bathing, or whatever – with the attitude that it needs to be done and she’s going to do it, the child responds accordingly. If a mother acts as if trouble is expected, she will probably get it.
- It is suggested that if the crawling baby can be corrected when he is off limits, he will feel more secure knowing the rules. This relates to
- Routine, which should be established early. Babies and parents alike will feel more comfortable on a routine.
- A baby’s urge to explore should be encouraged, for this helps establish guidelines as to what must be restricted, and here problem solving on the part of the infant begins. Reaching for a toy outside the bars of a playpen can bring on frustration if he falls, but it can involve psychological reward if he succeeds. This is a lesson that needs to be learned early.
- Any baby after a few months should get used to seeing other people, if only to watch them. This will make it easier to leave him with a babysitter. And
- Although it is true that some infants are “active” and others are “placid,” much of their personality development comes by parental handling. Babies seem to sense when mothers are tense and unsure, and will respond accordingly. Gradually, it seems, infants reflect the climate of their care.
Socialization process in Childhood
The development of skill in locomotion for the most part takes care of itself and needs little more attention than in providing for the child’s safety. This makes it easier to pay more attention to his other development
The Intellectual Level: On the intellectual level, the activities begun with the infant are expanded and made more complex with the preschooler. The child should have study books as soon as he is willing to sit and look at them. And the parent can help by explaining to him what he sees. This also provides for the growth of language; it develops a positive attitude toward books and reading and helps provide close personal relationship with grown-ups in the family. Since adults take for granted almost everything that intrigues the child, helping with intellectual growth can renew our own curiosity. And, of course, as-the parent sees the tow-or three-year-old begin to recognize on TV, he is offered topics for stimulating further growth.
The child can be guided to organize his thinking in a manner appropriate to his age. This comes by making suggestions for different ways of looking at a problem, whether a two-year-old is trying is build a block tower or a five-year-old has weighty kindergarten troubles. There are six general guidelines for the development of the child’s problem-solving ability:
- Let the child work on just one big problem at a time. Two or three problems can become confusing to h
- Being patient allows time for trial and error.
- Try not to judge a child’s accomplishments by adult standards, and expect a degree of regression from time to time.
- Learn when to stop solving problems for the baby. This encourages him to work on his own.
- Parents may find it helpful to study their own problem-solving behavior. This will help to guide the child through the step-by- step sequences.
- Encourage imagination. Sometimes it may get out of hand, but not for long; it is in imagination that creativity has its beginnings.
Educational Implication of Social Development
- Social Growth
- Feeling of Security
- Knowledge full of Utility
- Form of Knowledge
- Inclusion of Habits