Logical Games Questions and Examples
Logical Games Important Examples- Page 2
Logical Games Important Questions - Page 3
Logic games that require sequencing can be fully diagrammed before you start to answer any question. A typical fact pattern and list of constrains for a sequencing game follows.
Anna, Bill, Claire, Dave, Emily, Frank, and Gina are all working on their mathematics final. Each student hands his or her test to the professor at different times. The order in which their tests are submitted is governed by the following constrains:
Anna turns in her test before Bill.
Claire turns in her test after Bill.
Claire turns in her test before Dave.
Emily turns in her test after Dave.
Gina turns in her test before Emily and after Frank.
Frank turns in her test after Bill.
The technique that you should use to map out sequencing problems is very similar.
Technique that you used to solve formal logic problems
1. Transcribe the Constrains. In a sequencing problem, the constrains can be arranged sequentially. For instance, “Anna turns in her test before Bill” can be transcribed as; A>B. One you have read through all seven constraints, transcribe them into symbols as follows:
- A 2.B 3.C<D
When first transcribing the constraints, be careful to do two things. First, make sure that your “greater-than” signs consistently denote the same direction. Many test takers make careless errors by using a greater-than sign to represent “after” at the beginning of the problem and then switching to a “less-than” sign to represent “after” later in the problem. This is a serious mistake, so be sure to use a consistent ordering method in which you know the direction that each sign represents. Second, pay attention to “before “ versus “after” and to the use of the words not and sometimes. Test makers will throw in a “not after” or a “not before” just to try to confuse you. Also, they will mix up saying “before” and “after” when referring to the same variables, hoping that you will confuse the two words. Finally, if the word sometimes is used, then the constraint really means nothing, because just as a variable could sometimes come before another, it could also sometimes come afterward. To sum up, figuring out the correct order of the variables before you begin transcribing is the most difficult step in solving sequence problems, if you take the time to determine the correct order, the rest of the problem will be easy.
2. Add Logic Chains. Consolidate the seven constraints through logic chain addition. Constraints 1 through 4 can be added together to make a linear chain:
A < B < C < D < E
Constraints 5 through 7 can be added to the linear chain to form a connecting chain that look like this:
A < B < C < D < E
F < G
This all-encompassing chain represents all the variables in the problem.
3. Figure Out What You Deduce Correctly.
Before moving on the questions, you should ask yourself what the chain and its variables mean. That is, what can you deduce from the chain? Several deductions are clear”. A is less than E, F and G are less than E, and B is less than G. However, there are several fallacious deductions that people often make when confronted with a chain like this. Hence are a couple of incorrect deductions: F is less than D, G is greater than C, and D is equal to G. When a chain branches like this, it is of the utmost importance to realize that you can deduce nothing about the order of a variable that is not connected in a direct chain. Watch out for branched chains and beware of making these false deductions.
Here is another chain. For practice, ask yourself the following question. What are some false deductions that a test maker would like to trick a test taker into making based on this diagram of the variables?
N < P < L
M < K < O < J
Here are some examples of false deductions:
- N < K 3.N < J
- N < O 4.J < N
The principle is that there has to be a direct sequential link between the variables. If you are ever unsure of the sequential relationship, then start at one variable and try to make it to the next variable without either jumping the chain or having the sign change from “greater than” to “less than.” For example, take N < O. Starting at N and trying to connect to O, you would have move greater to P, but then you would have to go less to O, By trying to go to other direction, you would go less to M, then you would have to move greater to K and then to O. Making an assumption by switching from less to greater is impossible. Try to follow the order of logic of the correct deductions described next. Hence are some examples of correct deductions:
- M < L
- K < P
- M < J
See how you could start at M and consistently use the same chain to move greater to L. The following logic game will help you practice these techniques. Remember the order of operations. First, be careful while transcribing the constraints. Second, use logic chain addition. Finally, ask yourself what you can correctly deduce from your chain.