As the name itself suggests, logical deduction questions require logical thinking. Every question starts off with a premise which might be of any one of the following types:
Logical Deduction Premises Various Patterns
Type 1: If A Happens B Happens
This means that A leads B, but does not mean the reverse, i.e., if B has happened, A must have happened. In such situations, A is a sufficient condition for B, but is not a necessary condition.
Let’s look at the following example:
If I go to a movie, I enjoy myself.
This would mean, that if I have gone to the movie, I will definitely enjoy myself. However, it does not mean that if I have enjoyed myself, I must have gone to the movie there are so many ways of enjoying yourself.
Another example of this type would be:
If Amitabh acts in a move, he will earn money.
This does not mean that if he has earned money, he must have acted in the movie.
Type 2: Only If A Happens B Happens
In this case, A is necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of B. In this case, there is reversibility of the logic, i..e.., if B has happened, A must have happened.
Only If Saurav plays the match, will he get a hundred.
If Saurav has got a hundred, he must have played the match.
Type 3: If A Happens B does not Happen
In this case, if A has happened, B does not happen. The opposite is also true, i.e.., if B has happened. A must not have happened.
If Martina plays well, Sania will not win.
Type 4: If A does not Happen B will Happen
Again in this case, the reverse might not be true.
If Anand does not come, Kasparov will. This does not mean that if Kasparov comes, Anand will not come.
Type 5: Either A or B will Happen
One of the two has to happen. At the same time, the two events are exclusive of one another. If one happens, the other will not happen.
Either he becomes a TV star or he becomes a movie star.
Solved Example Logical Deduction
Example 1. Shahrukh either acts a villain, or he acts as a hero.
A. Shahrukh acts like a hero.
B. Shahrukh does not act like a villain.
C. Shahrukh acts like a villain.
D. Shahrukh does not act like a hero.
(a) CD only , (b) BA only , (c) CD & BA , (d) None of these
This question is based on the EITHER OR premise. Thus, we can see that CD is correct. Since, if he acts like a villain (Statement C) he will not act like a hero (Statement D).
Similarly, BA can also be seen to be true. Hence option (c) is correct.
Example 2. Whenever Martin goes to a movie, he has nightmares.
A. Martin did not have nightmares.
B. Martin went to a movie.
C. Martin had nightmares.
D. Martin did not go to the movie.
(a) AD , (b) DC , (c) CB , (d) DA
When A happens, However, if A does not happen, it is not necessary that B will not happen. Also, if B has happened, it is not necessary that A must have happened. However, if B has not happened, it is necessary that A must not have happened.
Thus, AD is the only correct sequence.
Example 3. If I talk to my girl friends, then I do not need to take a pill for heartache.
A. I talked to my girl friends.
B. I did not need to take a pill for heartache.
C. I needed to take a pill for heartache.
D. I did not talk to my girl friends.
(a) AB only , (b) DC only , (c) CD only , (d) AB and CD
This question falls under the category of if A happens, then B does not happen. However, if B has not happened, if does not mean that A has happened. AB and CD are both logically correct.
Logical Deduction Questions from Previous Year Exams
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Question 1 of 30
1. Question
1 pointsIn each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered 1 and 2 . You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.
Statements: All good athletes win. All good athletes eat well.
Conclusions:
1. All those who eat well are good athletes.
2. All those who win eat well.Correct
Incorrect
Since the middle term 'good athletes' is distributed twice in the premises, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So it follows that 'Some of those who win, eat well'.

Question 2 of 30
2. Question
1 pointsStatements: All film stars are playback singers. All film directors are film stars.
Conclusions:
1. All film directors are playback singers.
2. Some film stars are film directors.Correct
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, 1 follows. 2 is the converse of the second premise and so it also holds.
Incorrect
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, 1 follows. 2 is the converse of the second premise and so it also holds.

Question 3 of 30
3. Question
1 pointsStatements: All hill stations have a sunset point. X is a hill station.
Conclusions:
1. X has a sunset point.
2. Places other than hill stations do not have sunset points.Correct
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, only 1 follows.
Incorrect
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, only 1 follows.

Question 4 of 30
4. Question
1 pointsStatements: Some dreams are nights. Some nights are days.
Conclusions:
1. All days are either nights or dreams.
2. Some days are nights.Correct
Since both the premises are particular, no definite conclusion follows. However, 2 is the converse of the second premise and thus it holds.
Incorrect
Since both the premises are particular, no definite conclusion follows. However, 2 is the converse of the second premise and thus it holds.

Question 5 of 30
5. Question
1 pointsStatements: All jungles are tigers. Some tigers are horses.
Conclusions:
1. Some horses are jungles.
2. No horse is jungle.Correct
Since the middle term 'tigers' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, 1 and 2 involve only the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. So, either 1 or 2 follows.
Incorrect
Since the middle term 'tigers' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, 1 and 2 involve only the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. So, either 1 or 2 follows.

Question 6 of 30
6. Question
1 pointsStatements: All poles are guns. Some boats are not poles.
Conclusions:
1. All guns are boats.
2. Some boats are not guns.Correct
Clearly, the term 'guns' is distributed in both the conclusions without being distributed in any of the premises. So, neither conclusion follows.
Incorrect
Clearly, the term 'guns' is distributed in both the conclusions without being distributed in any of the premises. So, neither conclusion follows.

Question 7 of 30
7. Question
1 pointsStatements: Many scooters are trucks. All trucks are trains.
Conclusions:
1. Some scooters are trains.
2. No truck is a scooter.Correct
Since the first premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, only 1 follows.
Incorrect
Since the first premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, only 1 follows.

Question 8 of 30
8. Question
1 pointsStatements: Some papers are pens. Angle is a paper.
Conclusions:
1. Angle is not a pen.
2. Angle is a pen.Correct
Since the middle term 'papers' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, 1 and 2 involve only the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. Thus, either 1 or 2 follows.
Incorrect
Since the middle term 'papers' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, 1 and 2 involve only the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. Thus, either 1 or 2 follows.

Question 9 of 30
9. Question
1 pointsStatements: All birds are tall. Some tall are hens.
Conclusions:
1. Some birds are hens.
2. Some hens are tall.Correct
Since the middle term 'tall' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, 2 is the converse of the second premise and so it holds.
Incorrect
Since the middle term 'tall' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, 2 is the converse of the second premise and so it holds.

Question 10 of 30
10. Question
1 pointsStatements: Raman is always successful. No fool is always successful.
Conclusions:
1. Raman is a fool.
2. Raman is not a fool.Correct
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, only 2 follows.
Incorrect
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, only 2 follows.

Question 11 of 30
11. Question
1 pointsStatements: Some desks are caps. No cap is red.
Conclusions:
1. Some caps are desks.
2. No desk is red.Correct
Since one premise is particular and the other premise is negative, the conclusion must be particular negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some desks are not red'. However, 1 is the converse of the first premise and thus it holds.
Incorrect
Since one premise is particular and the other premise is negative, the conclusion must be particular negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some desks are not red'. However, 1 is the converse of the first premise and thus it holds.

Question 12 of 30
12. Question
1 pointsStatements: Some hens are cows. All cows are horses.
Conclusions:
1. Some horses are hens.
2. Some hens are horses.Correct
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, 2 follows. 1 is the converse of 2 and so it also holds.
Incorrect
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, 2 follows. 1 is the converse of 2 and so it also holds.

Question 13 of 30
13. Question
1 pointsStatements: All water is divine. All temples are divine.
Conclusions:
1. All water is temple.
2. All temples are water.Correct
Since the middle term 'divine' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion can be drawn.
Incorrect
Since the middle term 'divine' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion can be drawn.

Question 14 of 30
14. Question
1 pointsStatements: All men are dogs. All dogs are cats.
Conclusions:
1. All men are cats.
2. All cats are men.Correct
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative. However, conclusion 2 , being an Atype proposition, distributes the term 'cats'.
Since the term 'cats' is distributed in II without being distributed in any of the premises, so conclusion 2 cannot follow. Thus, only 1 follows.
Incorrect
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative. However, conclusion 2 , being an Atype proposition, distributes the term 'cats'.
Since the term 'cats' is distributed in II without being distributed in any of the premises, so conclusion 2 cannot follow. Thus, only 1 follows.

Question 15 of 30
15. Question
1 pointsStatements: All young scientists are openminded. No openminded men are superstitious.
Conclusions:
1. No scientist is superstitious.
2. No young people are superstitious.Correct
Incorrect
The subject in both the conclusions is vague. The true conclusion is 'No young scientist is superstitious'. Thus, neither 1 nor 2 follows,

Question 16 of 30
16. Question
1 pointsStatements: Some pastries are toffees. All toffees are chocolates.
Conclusions:
1. Some chocolates are toffees.
2. Some toffees are not pastries.Correct
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, it follows that 'Some pastries are chocolates', 1 is the converse of the second premise and so it holds. Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion cannot be negative. Thus, 2 does not follow.
Incorrect
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, it follows that 'Some pastries are chocolates', 1 is the converse of the second premise and so it holds. Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion cannot be negative. Thus, 2 does not follow.

Question 17 of 30
17. Question
1 pointsStatements: All fish are tortoise. No tortoise is a crocodile.
Conclusions:
1. No crocodile is a fish.
2. No fish is a crocodile.Correct
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative. Also, the conclusion should not contain the middle term. So, 2 follows; 1 is the converse of 2 and thus it also holds.
Incorrect
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative. Also, the conclusion should not contain the middle term. So, 2 follows; 1 is the converse of 2 and thus it also holds.

Question 18 of 30
18. Question
1 pointsStatements: Some dedicated souls are angels. All social workers are angels.
Conclusions:
1. Some dedicated souls are social workers.
2. Some social workers are dedicated souls.Correct
The first premise is an I type proposition. So, the middle term 'angels' forming the predicate is not distributed. The second premise is an A type proposition. So, the middle term 'angels' forming the predicate is not distributed. Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
Incorrect
The first premise is an I type proposition. So, the middle term 'angels' forming the predicate is not distributed. The second premise is an A type proposition. So, the middle term 'angels' forming the predicate is not distributed. Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

Question 19 of 30
19. Question
1 pointsStatements: No gentleman is poor. All gentlemen are rich.
Conclusions:
1. No poor man is rich.
2. No rich man is poor.Correct
The first premise is an Etype proposition, So, the middle term 'gentleman' forming the subject is distributed. The second premise is an Atype proposition. So, the middle term 'gentlemen' forming the subject is distributed. Since the middle term is distributed twice, the conclusion cannot be universal. Since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. Thus, it follows that 'Some rich men are not poor'. Thus, neither 1 nor 2 follows.
Incorrect
The first premise is an Etype proposition, So, the middle term 'gentleman' forming the subject is distributed. The second premise is an Atype proposition. So, the middle term 'gentlemen' forming the subject is distributed. Since the middle term is distributed twice, the conclusion cannot be universal. Since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. Thus, it follows that 'Some rich men are not poor'. Thus, neither 1 nor 2 follows.

Question 20 of 30
20. Question
1 pointsStatements: Some swords are sharp. All swords are rusty
Conclusions:
1. Some rusty things are sharp.
2. Some rusty things are not sharp.Correct
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, 1 follows. Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion cannot be negative. Thus, 2 does not follow.
Incorrect
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, 1 follows. Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion cannot be negative. Thus, 2 does not follow.

Question 21 of 30
21. Question
1 pointsStatements: All fishes are grey in colour. Some fishes are heavy.
Conclusions:
1. All heavy fishes are grey in colour.
2. All light fishes are not grey in colour.Correct
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some heavy things are grey in colour'. 1 is a cumulative result of this conclusion and the first premise. Thus, only 1 holds.
Incorrect
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some heavy things are grey in colour'. 1 is a cumulative result of this conclusion and the first premise. Thus, only 1 holds.

Question 22 of 30
22. Question
1 pointsStatements: All roads are waters. Some waters are boats.
Conclusions:
1. Some boats are roads.
2. All waters are boats.Correct
The first premise is A type and distributes the subject. So, the middle term 'waters' which forms its predicate, is not distributed. The second premise is 1 type and does not distribute either subject or predicate. So, the middle term 'waters' forming its subject is not distributed. Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
Incorrect
The first premise is A type and distributes the subject. So, the middle term 'waters' which forms its predicate, is not distributed. The second premise is 1 type and does not distribute either subject or predicate. So, the middle term 'waters' forming its subject is not distributed. Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

Question 23 of 30
23. Question
1 pointsStatements: No bat is ball. No ball is wicket.
Conclusions:
1. No bat is wicket.
2. All wickets are bats.Correct
Since both the premises are negative, no definite conclusion follows.
Incorrect
Since both the premises are negative, no definite conclusion follows.

Question 24 of 30
24. Question
1 pointsStatements: All flowers are trees. No fruit is tree.
Conclusions:
1. No fruit is flower.
2. Some trees are flowers.Correct
As discussed above, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No flower is fruit'. 1 is the converse of this conclusion and thus it follows. 2 is the converse of the first premise and so it also holds.
Incorrect
As discussed above, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No flower is fruit'. 1 is the converse of this conclusion and thus it follows. 2 is the converse of the first premise and so it also holds.

Question 25 of 30
25. Question
1 pointsStatements: Every minister is a student. Every student is inexperienced.
Conclusions:
1. Every minister is inexperienced.
2. Some inexperienced are students.Correct
Every' is equivalent to 'All'. Thus, since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, 1 follows. 2 is the converse of the second premise and thus it also holds.
Incorrect
Every' is equivalent to 'All'. Thus, since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, 1 follows. 2 is the converse of the second premise and thus it also holds.

Question 26 of 30
26. Question
1 pointsStatements: All roads are poles. No pole is a house.
Conclusions:
1. Some roads are houses.
2. Some houses are poles.Correct
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative. So, neither 1 nor 2 follows.
Incorrect
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative. So, neither 1 nor 2 follows.

Question 27 of 30
27. Question
1 pointsStatements: All cars are cats. All fans are cats.
Conclusions:
1. All cars are fans
2. Some fans are cars.Correct
Since the middle term 'cats' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
Incorrect
Since the middle term 'cats' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

Question 28 of 30
28. Question
1 pointsStatements: All young scientists are openminded. No openminded men are superstitious.
Conclusions:
1. No scientist is superstitious.
2. No young people are superstitious.Correct
The subject in both the conclusions is vague. The true conclusion is 'No young scientist is superstitious'. Thus, neither 1 nor 2 follows,
Incorrect
The subject in both the conclusions is vague. The true conclusion is 'No young scientist is superstitious'. Thus, neither 1 nor 2 follows,

Question 29 of 30
29. Question
1 pointsStatements: Some pastries are toffees. All toffees are chocolates.
Conclusions:
1. Some chocolates are toffees.
2. Some toffees are not pastries.Correct
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, it follows that 'Some pastries are chocolates', 1 is the converse of the second premise and so it holds. Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion cannot be negative. Thus, 2 does not follow.
Incorrect
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. Thus, it follows that 'Some pastries are chocolates', 1 is the converse of the second premise and so it holds. Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion cannot be negative. Thus, 2 does not follow.

Question 30 of 30
30. Question
1 pointsStatements: All boys are honest. Sachin is honest.
Conclusions:
1. Sachin is a boy.
2. All honest persons are boys.Correct
Both the premises are A type propositions. So, the middle term 'honest' forming the predicate in each is not distributed in either. Since the middle term is not distributed even once, no definite conclusion follows.
Incorrect
Both the premises are A type propositions. So, the middle term 'honest' forming the predicate in each is not distributed in either. Since the middle term is not distributed even once, no definite conclusion follows.
Logical Deduction Video Lecture
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlZCXtJaSnA
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