Creative Child

Creative Child - Complete Study Material and Questions

According to Drevdahl, “Creativity is the ability of individual which he creates something new and presents novel ideas.”

Skinner said, “Creatively thinking means that the predictions for the individual are new, original and unusual, the creative thinker is one who explores new areas and makes new observations, new predictions, new in ferences.”

According to Stagner and Karwoski, “Creativity implies the production of the totally or partially novel identity.”

According to Eysneck, “Creativity is the ability to see new relationship to produce unusual ideas and to deviate from traditional patterns thinking.”

On the basis of these definitions, the following features about creativity are as under:

  • Creativity is universal, it is present in everybody.
  • Creativity can be developed by training and education.
  • Creativity creates new things.
  • This new thing is original.
  • There is not much relation between creativity and intelligence.
a) Divergent Thinking is the basis of creativity. a) Convergent thinking the basis of intelligence
b) Intelligence tests lays emphasis on intelligent behaviour b) In creative tests emphasis is laid on originality, flexibility etc.
c) It is not necessary that an intelligent person is creative too c) Higher creative people have high leve; inteligence.

 

Gilford said that creative thinking has following features:

  1. Sensitivity of Problems
  2. Flexibility
  3. Elaboration
  4. Fluency
  5. Re-definition
  6. Abstracting ability
  7. Ability to arrange
  8. Ability to coherence and orgn
  9. Ability to synthesis and closure.

Thus we can say that creativity is that mental process with which man wants to change his environment.

Characteristics of Creative Children – According to Maslow, the characteristics of creative children are :

  1. More tolerance towards opposition.
  2. They are neat and have self actualization ability.
  3. Not afraid of alien, abstract objects and thoughts.
  4. Apt to work instantly
  5. They have thought flow.
  6. They are innocent and not cunning.

Education of Creative Child

  1. Teacher should respect the annatural and extra ordinary answers of the students.
  2. Children should be encouraged so that they do not fear exams.
  3. Children should be encouraged to participate in debates.
  4. Children should be provided with effective guidance.
  5. Children should be helped to bear problems.
  6. Children should be provided with affectionate, and secure environment.
  7. Children should be given opportunities for self-expression.
  8. Children should be given opportunities for the expression of ego.
  9. Children should be encouraged for self-evaluation.
  10. Evaluations should be combined with causes and results.

Category of Mentally Retarded

Category Range of L Q.
Idiots below 25
Imbeciles from 25 to 50
Morons from 51 to 75
Border line and the dull from 76 to 90

 

Leyels of Mental Retardation

Level of retardation

Intelligence Quotient

Standford Weehsler
Binet Scales
Profound Under 20 Under 25
Severe 20 - 35 25 - 39
Moderate 36 - 51 40 - 54
Mild 52 - 67 55 - 69

 

How do Identify Children with Special Needs

The first step to meet the needs of different categories of children is to identify them and their special needs in the class. They can be helped as early as they are identified. Teachers should be able to spot the special-needs-children for example, children suffering with physical handicap; mental retardation may be discovered through administering IQ tests. Doctors may help in identifying physical ailments. Psychologists also administer diagnostic tests for identifying learning disabilities. Parents can help in telling about the child’s difficulties, for example, late development of speech of the child, any emotional problem the child has suffered from, etc. The detailed information about the child’s health and dreams and other background may be had from Cumulative Record Card, if the child has come from some other school. Psychological tests can also identify the children with special talents. Sometimes other

Children with Special Needs, Course Adaptation and Teaching Strategy

Children with Special Needs Adaptation Approach/ Training
Learning Disabled
  • Direct instructional material
  • More assignment preparations for practice of the topic
  • Use of examples
  • Simple content
  • Evaluation techniques to be modified
  • Identify the learning disability and curriculum adaptation accordingly
  • Training in time management
  • Training in peer interaction and relationships
  • Direct instructions, extra instructions in skills where the child is weak
  • Repeated readings/writings
  • Use of calculators and other devices
  • Questions in simple language
  • Simple sentences
  • One task at a time
  • Make learning interesting
  • The length of the task should be reduced
Educable mentally retarded
  • Repetitive kinds of activities
  • Use of material with progressive difficulty and its sequencing
  • Behaviour modification
  • Aggression control
  • Use of daily routine examples in teaching
  • Avoidance of abstract concept
  • Identify specific capability of the child & develop it
  • Focus on development of functional skills
  • Frequent evaluation of the child on his performance and repetition of class/extra class
  • Lesson to be divided in very small parts
  • Vocational curriculum as educable mentally retarded are not able to go to higher classes
  • Vocational training in repetitive kind of works
  • Curriculum according to assets of the child not according to deficiencies
  • Parents’ participation and acceptance
  • Holding the interest of the child
  • Use of such material in teaching the child is familiar with
  • Teach one part of lesson at a time, take feedback, repeat if necessary
  • Before going to next part, recapitulate the part the child has already learnt.
  • Training in managing himself
  • Training in maintaining the hygiene
  • Multi-sensory approach in teaching
  • Flexible approach in teaching
  • Training to keep physical stamina and use of limbs
  • Training in communication skills
  • With proper training a retarded child can learn many things
  • Positive re- inforcement to the child
  • Teaching in slow pace
  • Don’t force him learn something specific
  • Safety training
  • Field trips can facilitate learning
  • Modification in tests to evaluate the performance of the child
  • Adaptation of instructions to the daily routine so that learning could be used, recalled and practiced.
  • Use of games, computers
  • Training in sharing.
Other categories of mentally retarded children
  • Children who are not educable retarded have more serious problem. They may be onfined to wheelchairs. Or may have more than one handicap. Such children require institutional help. Even those who are not confined to wheelchairs may have communication difficulties, problem in walking, balancing and/or doing routine activities.
  • Continuous support may be required in certain severe retardation cases.
  • Such children need help of occupational therapist, speech therapist or physiotherapist etc. They can be trained at a slow pace to communicate with fingers or through eye-movements. Gradually they can develop some skills to be independent. Some children can be trained to work in sheltered workshops and doing repetitive kinds of activities.
  • When placed with normal schools, children with severe disabilities should be taken for participation in various activities of the school like outings, music and art classes, gardening, parties, etc.
Under achievers
  • Identification of weak areas/subjects
  • Remedial teaching/special cases
  • Identification of specific problem and during the same
  • Small assignments with examples
  • Regular monitoring of performance
  • Use of materials with progressive difficulty
  • Curriculum to be interesting
  • Multi-sensory teaching approach
  • Intervention in the identified problem
  • Counselling
  • Motivation and reinforcement on performance improvement
  • Regular feedback from the child
  • Teaching methodology to be modified to make it interesting
First Generation
  • Curriculum should be adapted in such a way that it makes the child familiar with the concept of school, teacher, education, learning etc.
  • Exceptations of the school from the child
  • Simple tasks and activities with more examples that are functional for the child
  • Guidance for homework
  • Interaction with parents/famil
  • Teaching using functional orientation
  • Sensitivity towards problems of these children
  • Counselling
  • Small and easy assignment
  • Exposure of educational environment
  • Training in learning, study habits
  • Multi-sensory approach for teaching
  • Encouragement for participation
  • Adjustments and acceptance in school and class
Gifted and Creative
  • Extra assignments with variety of activities, greater difficulty, requiring experimentation, investigation. Creativity
  • Co-curricular activities
  • Responsibilities
  • Visits to places of interests
  • Ability groups
  • Can be taken for peer tutoring
  • Involving children in planning and designing school activities
  • Interaction with parents
  • Special summer programmes
  • Involvement in community work
  • Association with creative activities outside school.
  • Freedom of activities
  • Encouragement and motivation
  • Guidance and counselling
  • Incentives to gifted children
  • More conceptsat a time
  • Provide reference material and books for extra-reading
  • Give creative projects
  • Encourage participation in various competitions
  • Teaching methodology-use interesting material and new things
  • Plan special assignments
  • Hands-on sessions
  • Flexible approach

 

Classmates and friends tell about the child’s problems and exceptional abilities
Role of Teachers
A teacher has a very important role in providing services to the children with special needs. He has to perform the following functions:

  • Identify the children with special needs.
  • Assess their capabilities and weakness.
  • Identify what these children can do and what they cannot do.
  • Ascertain what specific facilities these children require in the school and outside.
  • Discuss and make the teachers, parents, principal, peer group aware about the special needs of these children.
  • Map the resources available inside and outside the school to help these children.
  • Collect, collate and disseminate the information that may be required for the children with special needs.
  • Provide counseling to such children wherever required.
  • Prepare a plan for various activities in consultation with teachers which various categories of special-needs-children may require.
  • Help the teachers and school in implementation of the plan.
  • Provide referral services. For example, the child who has problem in speech should be referred to speech correctionist or a physically handicapped child may be referred to occupational therapist. Referral services may also be had to assess the residual capacities of children with special needs.
  • Preventive measures can be taken to curtail incidence of disability. Guidance worker should make the students and community aware of the importance of immunization against various diseases, adopt a safe life style, follow traffic rules while on road, use safety measures while working in school laboratories.
  • One of the most important function of the counselor is mainstreaming to disabled children in the school and community with providing awareness about various disabilities.

In India, Dr.Kammath did classification of IQ as per the situations prevalent in India. This classification is as under:

Class
Gift
Extraordinary
S.V.Superior
Superior
Normal
Backward
Very Baclword
Border line
Moron
Feeble
Idiot

I.Q.
More than 140
Between 130 to 139.5
Between 120 to 129.5
Between 110 to 119.5
Between 90 to 109.5
Between 80 to 99.5
Between 70 to 79.5
Between 60 to 69.5
Between 50 to 59.5
Between 40 to 49.5
Less than 30
Classification of I.Q. According to Wechsler’s Scale
I.Q
130 and above
120-129
110-119
90-109
80-89
70-79
50-69
25-49
0-24
Description
Very Superior
Superior
Bright Normal
Average
Dull Normal
Border Line Mentally Defective
Mild Mental Defective
Moderate Mental Defective
Severe Mental Defective

General Classification of Level of Intelligence
I.Q
140 and above
120-140
110-120
90-110
75 - 90
50-75
25-50
Below 25
Description
Genius
Very Superior
Superior
Average
Border Line and Dull
Morons or Feeble minded
Imbecile
Idiots

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