Calculus Solutions, Important Examples, Formulas and Videos
Differentiability
Derivatives of composite function:
Example: find the derivative of f, where
Solution:
Now, observe that
Where g(x) =2x+1 , and .put t = g(x)=2x +1.Then f (x) = h(t) = .Thus
Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms: Some times the relation between two variables is neither explicit nor implic, but some link of a third variable with each of the two variables, separately , establishes a relation between the first two variables. In such a situation, we say that the relation between them is expressed via a third variable. The third variable is called the parameter . More precisely, a relation expressed between two variables x and y in the form x = f(t), y= g(t) is said to be parametric form with t as a parameter.
In order to find derivative of function in s uch form, we have by chain rule:
Thus ,
Points to be Remember :
 A real valued function is continuous at a point in its domain if the limit of the function at that point equals the value of the function at that point. A function is continuous if it is continuous on the whole of its domain .
 Sum, difference, product and quotient of continuous functions are continuous. i.e., if f and g are continuous functions, then
 is continuous .
(f. g) (x) = f(x) . g(x) is continuous
(where g(x) ≠ 0) is continuous ) .  Every differentiable function is continuous, but the converse is not true.
 Chain rule is rule to differentiate composites of functions. If f = v o u , t = u(x) and if both
exist then
 Following are some of the standard derivatives (in appropriate domains):
 Logarithmic differentiation is a powerful technique to differentiate functions of the form Here both f (x) and u(x) need to be positive for this technique to make sense.
 Rolle’s Theorem : If f: [a, b] →R is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b) such that f(a) = f(b), then There exists some c in (a, b) such that f′(c) = 0.
 Mean Value Theorem: If f: [a, b] →R is continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b). Then there exists some c in (a, b) such that
 Second derivatives test : Let f be a function defined on an intervalI and c ∈ I. Let f be twice differentiable at c. Then
(i) x = c is a point of local maxima if f′(c) = 0 and f′′(c) < 0The values f(c) is local maximum value of f . (ii) x = c is a point of local minima if f′(c) = 0 and f′′(c) > 0 In this case, f (c) is local minimum value of f .
(iii) The test fails if f′(c) = 0 and f′′(c) = 0.In this case, we go back to the first derivative test and find whether
C is a point of maxima, minima or a point of inflexion.  Working rule for finding absolute maxims and/or absolute minims
Step 1: Find all critical points of f in the interval, i.e., find points x where either f′(x) = 0 or f is not differentiable.
Step 2 : Take the end points of the interval.
Step 3 : At all these points (listed in Step 1 and 2), calculate the values of f.
Step 4 : Identify the maximum and minimum values of f out of the values calculated in Step 3. This maximum value will be the absolute maximum value of f and the minimum value will be the absolute minimum value of f .
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