Blood Relation Shortcuts, Examples, Questions and Video

  • Family or Blood Relationship means persons connected by relations like – father-mother, son-daughter, brother-sister, grandfather-grandmother, uncle-aunty, nephew-niece, brother-in-law, sister-in-law etc. The list can go on and on adding members from father’s side and mother’s side etc.
  • Questions in Test of Reasoning on Family /Blood Relationship are about the relationship of a particular person with another person of the family, based on the chain of relationships between other members of that family.
  • The questions depict relationships among the various members of a family in a roundabout chain. The candidate is expected to find the relation of two particular persons mentioned in the question.

An example of a question on Blood Relationship is given below to understand the concept in a better way:

Example 1:
Introducing Neeta, Anil said, ‘She is wife of my mother’s only son. How is Neeta related to Anil?
(1) Mother
(2) Wife
(3) Sister
(4) Daughter-in-law
(5) None of these
Neeta is the wife of Anil’s mother’s only son, who is Anil himself. Hence, answer is Neeta is Anil’s wife. i.e. (2) Wife.

Example 2:
‘Ram’ is the father of ‘Kusha’ but ‘Kusha’ is not his son. ‘Mala’ is the daughter of ‘Kusha’.’Shalaka’ is the spouse of ‘Ram’. ‘Gopal’ is the brother of ‘Kusha’. ‘Hari’ is the son of ‘Gopal’. ‘Meena’ is the spouse of ‘Gopal’. ‘Ganpat’ is the father of ‘Meena’. Who is the grand daughter of ‘Ram’?
(1) Hari
(2) Mala
(3) Meena
(4) Shalaka
(5) None of these



‘Mala’ is the daughter of ‘Kusha’ and ‘Ram’ is the father of ‘Kusha’. So, ‘Mala’ is the granddaughter of ‘Ram’. Hence, answer is (2) Mala.

  • Family/Blood Relation Tests are an exercise to test the candidate’s ability to comprehend and come to the crux of an issue from complex, lengthy and unclear data.
  • On a lighter note, this topic of Family/Blood Relations should be of interest to the candidates who are fans of Hindi Cinema, as the nature of the questions on Family/Blood Relations are of the type ‘Hum Aapke Hai Kaun’


Family/Blood Relations Described


  • Family/Blood Relations tests largely depend on the candidate’s knowledge of family relations. Various family relationships are described below to help the candidates to understand the relationships better and to attempt the questions based on them with confidence.

Some Common Terms

  • Meaning of some terms often used in questions on family relationship are given below:

a) Parent – Mother or father
b) Child – Son or daughter (even if an adult)
c) Sibling – Brother or sister (Including half brother and half sister - one parent in common)
d) Spouse – Husband or wife

Basic Relationships
Aunt, Uncle, Niece and Nephew

  • Most English speakers use “uncle” for any of four relationships: father’s brother, mother’s brother, father’s sister’s husband, or mother’s sister’s husband.
  • Again, “aunt” in English could mean father’s sister, mother’s sister, father’s brother’s wife, or mother’s brother’s wife.
  • Brother’s or sister’s son is called nephew. Brother’s or sister’s daughter is called niece.
  • Children of aunt or uncle are called cousins.


Relationships Involving the Term ‘-in-law’


  • Any relationship term ending with -in-law indicates that the relationship is by marriage and not by blood. In other words, -in-law will be a blood relative of the spouse.
  • In-law relationship terms are always written with hyphens. And the plural is formed on the part before the “-in-law”; for example, “brothers-in-law” and not “brother-in-laws”. The only exception is the general term “in-laws”, which is always plural.

Father-in-law, Mother-in-law, Son-in-law and Daughter-in-law

  • Father-in-law is the father of spouse; mother-in-law is the mother of spouse. If parents get divorced and remarry, their new spouses are called stepparents, not mother-in-law and father-in-law.
  • The husband of daughter is son-in-law; the wife of son is daughter-in-law. If spouse has children from a previous marriage, those are called stepchildren, not sons-in-law or daughters-in-law. The person is their stepfather or stepmother, not their father-in-law or mother-in-law.

Brother-in-law and Sister-in-law

  • Brother-in-law” and “Sister-in-law” each have two or three meanings as follows:

a) Sister-in-law could be
i) The sister of spouse, or
ii) The wife of brother, or
iii) The wife of spouse’s brother.

b) Similarly, Brother-in-law could be
i) The brother of spouse, or
ii) The husband of sister, or
iii) The husband of spouse’s sister.


Relationships Involving the Terms ‘Grand’ and ‘Great’

  • The relationships of the second generation are prefixed with the word Grand. For example, for a person, the first generation below him/her would be that of his/her child/children. The next/second generation would be the children of the children who would be called Grand Children of that person. The next/ third generation children would be called Great Grand Children of that person. This also applies to Niece and Nephew. For example Son of nephew of a person is called Grand Nephew and so on.
  • Similarly, for a person, the first generation above him would be that of his/her parents (Father/Mother). The next/second generation above him/her would be the parents of the parents who would be called Grand Parents/ Grand Father/ Grand Mother of that person. The next/ third generation parents would be called Great Grand Parents/ Great Grand Father/ Great Grand Mother of that person.
  • This also applies to the collateral relationships. For example Son of nephew of a person is called Grand Nephew; Brother of Grand Father is called Grand Uncle and so on.
  • The fourth generation relationships are called Great Great Grand. For example, Son of Great Grand Son is Great Great Grand Son.


Half Sibling and Step Relations

  • Questions on Half Sibling and Step Relations are not very common in Bank exams. The information given below is only for very discerning candidates.
  • A half sibling (half brother or half sister) is a sibling with one shared biological parent.
  • When a parent remarries, the new spouse is the stepfather or stepmother of any children from the previous marriage. The children from a previous marriage are stepsons and stepdaughters. One is called stepbrother or stepsister if they have no parents in common but their parents have married each other. There are two ways Martha could have a stepsister:

a) If Martha’s mother marries second time, and her new husband (Martha’s new stepfather) already has a daughter from a previous marriage, that daughter is Martha’s stepsister because one of her parents is married to one of Martha’s parents.

b) If Martha’s father marries second time, and his new wife already has a daughter, that daughter is again Martha’s stepsister.

  • A similar rule gives the two ways for stepbrother.


Summary of Some Common Relationships

Summary of some common Relationships is given below in tabular forms:




Types of Questions on Blood Relations

  • Questions on Blood Relations are of the following types:

a) Mixed-Up Relationship Descriptions.
b) Relationships Riddle.
c) Coded Relations.

Type I - Mixed-Up Relationship Descriptions
Concept and Example

  • In questions of Mixed-Up Relationship Descriptions, a cluttered and roundabout description of relationships is given. The candidate is required to decipher the whole chain of relations and identify the direct/ actual relationship between the concerned persons.
  • A solved example of the Mixed-Up Relationship Descriptions is given below to understand the concept and questions based on it.

Pointing to a gentleman, Dinesh said “His only brother is the father of my daughter’s father.” How is the gentleman related to Dinesh?

(1) Uncle
(2) Grandfather
(3) Father
(4) Brother- in-law
(5) None of these

The gentleman’s only brother is the father of Dinesh (Dinesh daughter’s father is Dinesh himself.). Gentleman is brother of Dinesh’s father. Gentleman is Dinesh’s uncle. Hence, answer is (1) Uncle.

Basic Skills and Tips for Solving Questions on Mixed-Up Relationship Descriptions

  • To make the chain of relationships clear, where necessary a rough sketch of family tree may be prepared in pencil on question paper on the basis of descriptions given in the question. The person’s of same generation may be placed on same horizontal level and that of different generation one below the other. It may sometimes be necessary to draw two different diagrams and then put them together based on the link provided.
  • The relationship may be shown by drawing lines / arrows. Short forms as follows may be used to indicate the nature of relationships:


  • Use of Small letters is suggested to indicate the nature of relationships to avoid confusion of Capital alphabets used in the questions like ‘A is mother of C’, ‘D is sister of B’s husband’.
  • Sometimes even re-writing the given information using the short forms helps in reducing the confusion. The candidates may also, where possible try to correlate the given relationships with their own kith and kin. This works wonderfully in understanding the relationship.
  • It is observed that the names given in the questions are sometimes deceptive as to the gender. Candidates are advised to follow the instructions given in the question ignoring the name of the gender as at times it is deceptive. e.g. Kamal, Milan, Preetam, Kiran, Jasbir, Jasprit and etc.
  • Quite often descriptions of superfluous (unnecessary/ redundant) are given. It is thus better to first identify relationship between which two persons is exactly required to be found out in the question. And then proceed to track the relationship based on the descriptions connected to them.
  • Again properly understanding the relationship between which two persons is exactly required to be found out in the question is important as the relationship between A and B would be different than between B and A. For example, if Ravi and Mala are brother and sister, Ravi is related to Mala as brother, whereas Mala is related to Ravi as sister.
  • Also remember that terms like ‘only son’ only means that the person do not have other son, but it does not mean that the person doesn’t have daughter/s. However, when it is said a person does not have any brothers and sisters, it can be safely concluded that he is the only child of his father/mother.
  • Quite often a candidate depending upon whether he is male or female presumes that a person whose sex is not explicitly referred to in the relationships is of the same sex as that of his/her. Such bias about the sex of the persons referred to the relationships should be avoided and the candidate should go strictly by the description given in the question.
  • Often the relationships are described in a round about way. Some examples of such descriptions and their actual/direct meaning is given below:

a) Only son of my grand father – My Father
b) Only son of my grandmother – My Father
c) Only daughter of my grandfather – My Mother
d) Only daughter of my grandmother – My Mother
e) Sister of my mother – My Aunt
f) Son/Daughter of my husband – My son / daughter
g) Son/Daughter of my wife – My son / daughter
h) Only daughter of my grandfather’s only son – My Sister
i) Grandmother of my father’s only son – My Grandmother
j) Father of my daughter’s father – My Father
k) Father of my son’s father – My Father
l) My son’s sister – My daughter
m) Daughter-in-law of grandmother of my father’s only son – My Mother
n) A is the father of B but B is not the son of A – B is daughter of A

  • After the answer is found, it is good practice to quickly check back the answers with the relevant information given in the question.


Solved Examples of Mixed-Up Relationship Descriptions

Example 1: Pointing to Ajay, Radha said, “His father is the only son of my grandfather”. How is Radha Related to Ajay?
(1) Brother
(2) Sister
(3) Mother
(4) Daughter
(5) None of these


family5When Radha’s Grandfather’s only son is Ajay’s father, then Ajay’s father is also the father of Radha. So Radha is Ajay’s sister. Hence, answer is (2) Sister.

We know, ‘Only son of my grandfather’ means ‘my father’. “His father is the only son of my grandfather” thus becomes “His father is my father”. So Radha is Ajay’s sister. Hence, answer is (2) Sister.

Example 2: Lalita said to Tina, “You are the daughter-in-law of the grandmother of my father’s only son.”
How is Lalita related to Tina?
(1) Aunt
(2) Sister
(3) Mother
(4) Indeterminable
(5) None of these

Solution: ‘My father’s only son’ is my (Lalita’s) brother. Tina is daughter-in-law of grandmother of (Lalita’s) brother. Tina thus can be their mother (wife of grandmother’s only son). However as it is not mentioned that the grandmother has only one son, Tina can be wife of grandmother’s other son i.e. Tina could also be their aunt. Hence, answer is (4) Indeterminable.

Example 3: Pointing to a photograph, Amar said, “I have no brother or sister but that man’s father is my father’s son.” Whose photograph was it?
(1) His son’s
(2) His father’s
(3) His nephew’s
(4) His own
(5) None of these

Solution: Since Amar has no brother or sister so his father’s son is the man himself and so the man who is talking is the father of the man in the photograph i.e. the man in the photograph is his son. Hence, answer is (1) His son’s.

Example 4: Looking at the portrait of a man, Ashok said, ‘His mother is the wife of my father’s son. Brothers and sisters I have none’. At whose portrait was Ashok looking?
(1) His cousin
(2) His nephew
(3) His uncle
(4) His son
(5) None of these

Solution: My (Ashok’s) father’s son will be Ashok himself as he has no brother or sister. Ashok’s wife is mother of the person in the portrait. The portrait is thus of Ashok’s own son. Hence, answer is (4) His Son.


Blood Relation Questions from Previous Year Exams

Verbal Reasoning of Blood Relation Test


Blood Relation Video Lecture

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