Bar Chart and Bar Graph  Exam Syllabus  Study Material and Important Question
What is Data Introduction ?
Data Introduction is the act of transforming data with the objective of extracting useful information and facilitating conclusions on the basis of the given data. Depending upon the type of data and the questions, we might be required to apply certain statistical tools with various methods to represents the given data.
What is Data ?
Data is means to represents facts, concepts or instruction in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by humans or other automatic models.
In other words, propositions like measurements or observations of a variable, which may comprise numbers, words or images can be quantified with the help of data.
Data can be a numerical or nonnumerical fact and figure related to a particular social, economic or political event etc.
Let us see some examples of data :
Yesterday the Sensex closed at 14,004 points.
25% of the total population of India is below The poverty line.
In the last general elections in India, 40% of the total seats were won by regional parties. Data can be further understood to be an agent to cause the sentiments and even sometimes it can be effect also.
It the data given is distinct and separate, i.e. It can be counted (1, 2, 3â€¦â€¦), then it is known as Discrete Data. For example, population of a country, production of cars in a manufacturing plant.
However, if the data takes any value within a finite or infinite interval, then it is known as a Continuous Variable. For example, the percentage of sugar in mangoes or weight/height etcâ€¦, are continuous variables.
Bar Chart / Bar Graph
The bar chart, in comparison to the pie chart is more versatile in representing data. It has been proven that representation using lengths as in the case of bar charts is a better indicator of data visÃ vis pie charts wherein data is categorized in terms of areas.
In the above diagram, the same data has been represented lengthwise in the bar chart and areawise in the pie chart. Obviously, it is easier to see the contribution of the various segments in the bar chart than in the pie chart.
A therefore, is a chart with rectangular bars of lengths proportional to the values which they represent. Usually, the terms â€˜bar chartâ€™ and â€˜bar graphâ€™ are used interchangeably. It should also be noted that in a bar chart, what matters is the length of the bar and not the width of the bar.
Example: The following bar chart represents the number of seats won by different parties in the last general election.
Significance of Bar Charts
Following are the major specialties of bar charts :
Unlike the pie chart, a single bar chart can be used to compare two, or more than two continuous variables.
Example: The following bar chart represents the number of seats won by different parties in two general elections:
Since the length parameter is easier to study than the area parameter, a bar chart gives a quick understanding of the various ranks. Hence the time taken to understand the data becomes considerably lower in a bar chart as compared to other formats of data presentation.
Types of Bar Charts
There are three types of bar charts :
1) Normal Bar Chart
This is a simple bar chart with the values of different segments represented in the form of bars, which could be either horizontal, vertical or both.
Example: The following bar chart represents the crime cases reported in Delhi in 2007:
Bar Chart with Vertical Bars
Bar Chart with Horizontal Bars
Bar Charts with 3D Effects
2) Stacked Bar Chart Valuewise
When the same variable is to be represented on more than one parameters like; year etcâ€¦,then we can have a stacked bar chart.
Stacked Bar Chart PercentageWise
The only difference between valuewise and percentagewise bar charts is that in the former we apply values to stack that bars and in the latter we apply percentages.
Stacked Bar Charts are also known as Cumulative Bar Charts.
Example: Here, we will see the same data in normal bar chart, valuewise stacked bar chart and stacked bar chart and stacked bar chart percentage wise
3) Normal Bar Chart
Following things can be observed in the above bar chart :
Bars representing different crimes in different years are proportional to the crimes reported.
The above bar chart takes the minimum values as 100, however the same bar chart could take the minimum values as 0 or 50 or anything else as well. The question here is, what will happen if we take the minimum value as 150?
Since some of the values are less than 150, what will happen to those? Find out yourself without using a computer.
Following things can be observed in the above stacked bar chart:
The total number of murders have been added up in one bar and the different years are shown as a part of that total.
The same data could also have been represented by taking the sum of all the crimes reported in a particular year as a total, and the individual crimes as a part of that total.
Stacked Bar Chart Percentagewise
Following things can be observed in the above stacked bar chart :
 The total number of murders have been added up and they equal to 100%; and the mureders reported in different years have been taken as a percentage of that total.
 The same data could have been represented by taking the sum of all the crimes reported in a particular year as a total, and the individual crimes as a part of that total.
Important Solved Examples for Bar Charts
Directions for questions 1 to 5: Refer to the following bar graph and solve the questions based on it.
The following bar chart shows the monthly expenditure of a family comprising of five persons over a period of seven months during three different years.
Question 1) In any of the given years, which month see the maximum percentage increase in expenses with respect to the previous month?
Answer: April. This question can be solved by visual inspection.
Question 2) What is the average monthly expenditure of the whole family in the year 2000?
Answer: Rs. cannot be determined. To find the average monthly expenditure during the year 2000, the total income for the year has to be known. In the chart, the income of only seven months is known. Therefore it cannot be determined.
Question 3) In April 2000, What was the percentage increase in expenditure over April 1999?
Answer: 1.2%.
value (April 2000) = 316
Value (April 1999) = 312
Approximate % age increase = 1.2%
Question 4) Which period has shown the same change in trend across all the given three years?
Answer: MarchApril. The same increasing trend is seen every year during the period MarchApril.
Question 5) For how many months of the given years the expenditure has been consistently increasing or decreasing?
Answer: 1. Only April Satisfies these conditions.
Important Questions for Bar Chart  From Previous Year Papers
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This part will cover Bar Graph Syllabus of IBPS Bank Clerk Exam.
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Question 1 of 40
1. Question
1 pointsNumber of People Contributing Toward Helping
Tsunami Victims From Different Cities
How many more people from City S would have madeÂ the ratio 11 : 9 between the number of peopleÂ contributing from Cities S and T respectively?
Correct
Incorrect
Let the required no. of people be x.
Then,9xÂ =18000
x = 2000

Question 2 of 40
2. Question
1 pointsNumber of People Contributing Toward Helping
Tsunami Victims From Different Cities
Number of people contribution Cities Q and UÂ together form what per cent of the total number ofÂ people contributing from all the given cities?
Correct
Incorrect
No. of people contributing from cities Q and U together
= 5500 + 2500 = 8000
Total no. of people contributing from all the cities
= 4000 + 5500 + 5000 + 3500 + 4500 + 2500 = 25000
Required %= %

Question 3 of 40
3. Question
1 pointsNumber of People Contributing Toward Helping
Tsunami Victims From Different Cities
Number of people contributing from how many citiesÂ form less than 18% of the total number of peopleÂ contributing from all cities together?
Correct
Incorrect
18% of 2500=
Such cities are= P,S, U Â ie, 3 cities

Question 4 of 40
4. Question
1 pointsNumber of People Contributing Toward Helping
Tsunami Victims From Different Cities
Approximately by what per cent number of peopleÂ contributing from City T are more in comparison to theÂ people contributing from City S?
Correct
Incorrect
No. of people Contributing from city T = 4500
No. of people contributing from city S = 3500
.'. Required %== %= 29%

Question 5 of 40
5. Question
1 pointsNumber of People Contributing Toward Helping
Tsunami Victims From Different Cities
What is the respective ratio between number of peopleÂ contributing from City P to those from City R?
Correct
Incorrect
Required ratio = 4000 : 5000= 4:5

Question 6 of 40
6. Question
1 pointsSales of Various Precious Stones in India for
the Period of 19951996 to 19992000What is the total sales of Ruby as a per cent of the total sales of precious stones for the given period?
Correct
Incorrect
Total sales of Ruby
= 200 + 100 + 200 + 200 + 200 = 900Now, required % == 17.3%

Question 7 of 40
7. Question
1 pointsSales of Various Precious Stones in India for
the Period of 19951996 to 19992000By what per cent is the average annual sales of EmeraldÂ for the given period more than the sales of Opal inÂ 199899?
Correct
Incorrect
Avg. annual sales of Emerald =
Required% = %

Question 8 of 40
8. Question
1 pointsSales of Various Precious Stones in India for
the Period of 19951996 to 19992000For how many years is the sales of Bezel as a percentageÂ of the total sales of precious stones less than that ofÂ Topaz?
Correct
Incorrect
It is clear from chart.

Question 9 of 40
9. Question
1 pointsSales of Various Precious Stones in India for
the Period of 19951996 to 19992000If the sales of Topaz increased from 199495 to 199596 by 25% and increased from 19992000 to 200001 by 50%, then what is the difference between the sales of Topaz in 199 495 and that in 200001?
Correct
Incorrect
Sales of Topaz in 199495
=
Sales of Topaz in 200001=
Now, required increase= 300000 160000= 140000 tonnes

Question 10 of 40
10. Question
1 pointsSales of Various Precious Stones in India for
the Period of 19951996 to 19992000Which of the given precious stones experienced theÂ highest percentage growth in its sales in any year overÂ that of the previous year for the period 199697 to 19992000?
Correct
Incorrect
Highest % growth can be measured for Topaz.

Question 11 of 40
11. Question
1 pointsThe bar graph givenÂ below shows the foreign exchange reserves of a countryÂ (in million US $) from 199192 ta 199899. Answer theÂ question s based on, this graph.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of a Country
Â Â Â Â Â Â (in million US $)The foreign exchange reserves in 199798 was howÂ many times that in 199 495?
Correct
Incorrect

Question 12 of 40
12. Question
1 pointsThe bar graph givenÂ below shows the foreign exchange reserves of a countryÂ (in million US $) from 199192 ta 199899. Answer theÂ question s based on, this graph.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of a Country
Â Â Â Â Â Â (in million US $)What was the percentage increase in the foreignÂ exchange reserves in 199798 over 199394?
Correct
Incorrect
%

Question 13 of 40
13. Question
1 pointsThe bar graph givenÂ below shows the foreign exchange reserves of a countryÂ (in million US $) from 199192 ta 199899. Answer theÂ question s based on, this graph.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of a Country
Â Â Â Â Â Â (in million US $)For which year, the per cent increase of foreign exchangeÂ reserves over the previous year, is the highest?
Correct
Incorrect
Year % increase in reverse during these year compared to previous years 199293 40.91% 199495 33.33% 199697 38.46% 199798 16.67% It is clear that % increase over previous year is highest for 199293

Question 14 of 40
14. Question
1 pointsThe bar graph givenÂ below shows the foreign exchange reserves of a countryÂ (in million US $) from 199192 ta 199899. Answer theÂ question s based on, this graph.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of a Country
Â Â Â Â Â Â (in million US $)The foreign exchange reserves in 199697 wereÂ approximately what per cent of the average foreignÂ exchange reserves over the period under review?
Correct
Incorrect
Avg. foreign exchange reserves over the given period
Â Â Required %= %= 124. 14 %= 125%

Question 15 of 40
15. Question
1 pointsThe bar graph givenÂ below shows the foreign exchange reserves of a countryÂ (in million US $) from 199192 ta 199899. Answer theÂ question s based on, this graph.
Foreign Exchange Reserves of a Country
Â Â Â Â Â Â (in million US $)The ratio of the number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves are above the average reserves, to those in which the reserves are below the average reserves, ls
Correct
Incorrect
Average reserve = 3480
Above the average reserve in 199293, 199697 andÂ 199798 three years and rest is in below the average i.e,Â below 3480.
So, required ratio = 3 :5 
Question 16 of 40
16. Question
1 pointsDeaths foom AIDS Related Diseases as a
Â Â Â Â percentage of Cases DiagnosedPlague's Progress: Number
of New Cases Diagnosed in US
Total number of new AIDS sases diagnosed since 1996Â are
Correct
Incorrect
Total no. of cases diagnosed across the years 19962000
=(6+ 11 + 17 +23+ 14)x 1000 = 71000 
Question 17 of 40
17. Question
1 pointsDeaths foom AIDS Related Diseases as a
Â Â Â Â percentage of Cases DiagnosedPlague's Progress: Number
of New Cases Diagnosed in US
In which year, were the maximum number of the deathsÂ due to AIDS?
Correct
Incorrect
No. of deaths in 1998=
No. of deaths in 1999=

Question 18 of 40
18. Question
1 pointsDeaths foom AIDS Related Diseases as a
Â Â Â Â percentage of Cases DiagnosedPlague's Progress: Number
of New Cases Diagnosed in US
Which of the following statement can be inferred?
I. Â AIDS is one of the most serious problems of the
1990's.
II. Â The proportion of of deaths caused due to AIDS is
declining.
III. Â AIDS victims are increasing every year.Correct
Incorrect
None of the statement is definitely true.

Question 19 of 40
19. Question
1 pointsDeaths foom AIDS Related Diseases as a
Â Â Â Â percentage of Cases DiagnosedPlague's Progress: Number
of New Cases Diagnosed in US
If 35% of the total AIDS cases reported in the last BÂ months of a year, what are the total number of reportedÂ cases in 2000?
Correct
Incorrect
No. of cases diagnosed in the first 9 months of 2000 = 14000
Now, total no. of cases diagnosed in 2000
=

Question 20 of 40
20. Question
1 pointsAnalysis of Complaints Received for Washing
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Machines of ABC LtdIn which year was the number of complaints per 1000Â washing machines in service the maximum for ABC Ltd ?
(Calculated on the endoftheyear figures)
Correct
Incorrect
Year Number of complaints received per 1000 washing machines 1988 2.5% 1989 3.08 1990 2.86% 1991 2.31% Hence it is maximum in the year 1989

Question 21 of 40
21. Question
1 pointsAnalysis of Complaints Received for Washing
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Machines of ABC LtdIf 10% of the washing machines at the end of every yearÂ is scrapped from service, what is the approximateÂ number of washing machine in service at the end ofÂ 1991? (Assume that 1988 was the first year of operationsÂ for ABC Ltd)
Correct
Incorrect
Year washing soda in services 1988 0.36 lakh 1989 0.585 lakh 1990 0.945 lakh 1991 1.755 lakh Hence total= (0.36 + 0.585 + 0.945 + 1.755) lakh
=3.65 lakh 
Question 22 of 40
22. Question
1 pointsAnalysis of Complaints Received for Washing
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Machines of ABC LtdIn which two years was the percentage increase in theÂ number of complaints received over the previous yearÂ the same?
Correct
Incorrect
% increase in the no. of complaints is same for the yearÂ 198990 and 199091
= %
and Â %

Question 23 of 40
23. Question
1 pointsAnalysis of Complaints Received for Washing
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Machines of ABC LtdIf 10% of the complaints received in 1991 were not actualÂ complaints but were because of the wrong operation ofÂ the washing machines by customers, then what is theÂ approximate number of actual complaints per 1000Â washing machines in 1991 (as calculated at the end of the year)
Correct
Incorrect
Actual complaints per 1000 washing machines
=

Question 24 of 40
24. Question
1 pointsAnalysis of Complaints Received for Washing
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Machines of ABC LtdIf it was found that 'fuse blowing' formed 50% of theÂ complaints in 1988 and the number of such complaintsÂ was increasing at 20% per year, then what percentage ofÂ complaints in 1991 was due to 'fuse blowing'?
Correct
Incorrect
% of complaints of fuse blowing in 1991
=
= %

Question 25 of 40
25. Question
1 pointsThe following bargraphÂ shows the Income and Expenditure (in million US $)Â of five companies in the year 2001. The per cent Â profitÂ or loss of a cornpany is given by
Study the graph and answerÂ based on itÂ the questions that are based on it
Income and Expenditure (in million US $) of Five
Â Â Â Â Â Â Companies in the Year 2001Which Company earned the maximum percentage profitÂ in the year 2001?
Correct
Incorrect
Company % Profit/ Loss in year 2001 M 22 % N 25% p 11.11% Q 33.33 % R 11.11% Hence it is clear that company Q earned the maximum profit

Question 26 of 40
26. Question
1 pointsThe following bargraphÂ shows the Income and Expenditure (in million US $)Â of five companies in the year 2001. The per cent Â profitÂ or loss of a cornpany is given by
Study the graph and answerÂ based on itÂ the questions that are based on it
Income and Expenditure (in million US $) of Five
Â Â Â Â Â Â Companies in the Year 2001The Companies M and N together had a percentageÂ profit/ loss of
Correct
Incorrect
% profit / loss=
= 0% (no profit no loss )

Question 27 of 40
27. Question
1 pointsThe following bargraphÂ shows the Income and Expenditure (in million US $)Â of five companies in the year 2001. The per cent Â profitÂ or loss of a cornpany is given by
Study the graph and answerÂ based on itÂ the questions that are based on it
Income and Expenditure (in million US $) of Five
Â Â Â Â Â Â Companies in the Year 2001In 2001 what was the approximate percentage ofÂ profit/loss of all the five Companies taken together?
Correct
Incorrect
Total income of all five companies
= (35 + 50 + 40 + 40 + 50) = 215 million US $
Total expenditure of all five companies
=(45+40 +45+30 +48)
=205 million US $
% profit= % = 5%

Question 28 of 40
28. Question
1 pointsThe following bargraphÂ shows the Income and Expenditure (in million US $)Â of five companies in the year 2001. The per cent Â profitÂ or loss of a cornpany is given by
Study the graph and answerÂ based on itÂ the questions that are based on it
Income and Expenditure (in million US $) of Five
Â Â Â Â Â Â Companies in the Year 2001If the incorne of Company Q in 2001 was 10% more thanÂ its income in 2000 and the Company had earned a profitÂ of 20% in 2000, then its expenditure in 2000 (in millionÂ US $) was
Correct
Incorrect
Let the income of company Q in 2000 be a million US $.
Then, income of company Q in 2001= $
Let the expenditure of company R in 2000 be million US $
Hence, Expenditure of company R in 2000 = 30.30 million US $

Question 29 of 40
29. Question
1 pointsThe following bargraphÂ shows the Income and Expenditure (in million US $)Â of five companies in the year 2001. The per cent Â profitÂ or loss of a cornpany is given by
Study the graph and answerÂ based on itÂ the questions that are based on it
Income and Expenditure (in million US $) of Five
Â Â Â Â Â Â Companies in the Year 2001For Company R, if the expenditure had increased byÂ 20% in year 2001 from year 2000 and the Company hadÂ earned a profit of 10% in 2000, what was the Company'sÂ income in 2000 (in million US $)?
Correct
Incorrect
Let the expenditure of company R in 2000 be a millionÂ US $.
Then, expenditure of company R in 2001
$
Let the income of company R in 2000 be b million US $.
b= 41.25 million US $

Question 30 of 40
30. Question
1 pointsThe following bar chart shows the daily movement ofÂ money market (in t crores) in the month of June.
On which date in June was the ratio of gilts traded toÂ corporate debt, traded the lowest?
Correct
Incorrect
On 21st June, gilt is much lower than corporate

Question 31 of 40
31. Question
1 pointsThe following bar chart shows the daily movement ofÂ money market (in t crores) in the month of June.
What is the mean value of gilts in (t crores) over the lastÂ 5 days of June?
Correct
Incorrect
Required mean value
=

Question 32 of 40
32. Question
1 pointsThe following bar chart shows the daily movement ofÂ money market (in t crores) in the month of June.
It can be inferred that the volume of gilts on 20th June was??
Correct
Incorrect
The volume do not show a linear trend as average of 19 and 21 is 1200.

Question 33 of 40
33. Question
1 pointsThe following bar chart shows the daily movement ofÂ money market (in t crores) in the month of June.
If the volume of gilts over the last 5 days is twice theÂ volume between 19th and 21st June, then what was theÂ volume of gilts in { crores on 20th June?
Correct
Incorrect
Let required volume of gilts be a.
Then,

Question 34 of 40
34. Question
1 pointsThe following bar chart shows the daily movement ofÂ money market (in t crores) in the month of June.
What was the percentage increase in the ratio of the giltsÂ to corporate debt on 23rd June from the previous day?
Correct
Incorrect
The ratio of gilt to corporate debt on 22nd June
=
and on 23rd June=
Hence, required % increase =

Question 35 of 40
35. Question
1 pointsThe following bar chart shows the daily movement ofÂ money market (in t crores) in the month of June.
If on July 1st value of corporate debt increases to 600,Â what should be the % Â increase/decrease in value of giltsÂ so that the ratio between gilts and corporate debtsÂ remains the same as on 30th June?
Correct
Incorrect
Ratio of gilt to corporate debt on 30th June
=
Such ratio on !st July = then, it will be Â
Hence, % change= %

Question 36 of 40
36. Question
1 pointsA cosmetic company produces five different products. The sales of these fiveÂ products (in lakh number of packs) during 1995 andÂ 2000 a,re shown. in the following bargraph. TheÂ question s given below are based on this graph.
Sales (in lakh number of packs) of Five DifferentÂ
Products of a Cosmetic Company during 1995 and.2000
The sales have increased by nearly 55% from 1995 toÂ 2000 in the case of
Correct
Incorrect
Cosmetics % increase from 1995 to 2000 Lipstick 139.06 Talcum powder 94.66 Shampoo 55% Conditioners 103.39% 
Question 37 of 40
37. Question
1 pointsA cosmetic company produces five different products. The sales of these fiveÂ products (in lakh number of packs) during 1995 andÂ 2000 a,re shown. in the following bargraph. TheÂ question s given below are based on this graph.
Sales (in lakh number of packs) of Five DifferentÂ
Products of a Cosmetic Company during 1995 and.2000
During the period L9952000, the minimum rate ofÂ increase in sales is in the case of
Correct
Incorrect
Using solution of previous question, we can say that theÂ minimum rate of, increase in sales from 1995 to 2000 isÂ in the case of shampoos.

Question 38 of 40
38. Question
1 pointsA cosmetic company produces five different products. The sales of these fiveÂ products (in lakh number of packs) during 1995 andÂ 2000 a,re shown. in the following bargraph. TheÂ question s given below are based on this graph.
Sales (in lakh number of packs) of Five DifferentÂ
Products of a Cosmetic Company during 1995 and.2000
The sales of lipsticks in 2000 was by what per cent moreÂ than the sales of nail enamels in 2000? (Rounded off toÂ the nearest integer)
Correct
Incorrect
Required %= % = 28%

Question 39 of 40
39. Question
1 pointsA cosmetic company produces five different products. The sales of these fiveÂ products (in lakh number of packs) during 1995 andÂ 2000 a,re shown. in the following bargraph. TheÂ question s given below are based on this graph.
Sales (in lakh number of packs) of Five DifferentÂ
Products of a Cosmetic Company during 1995 and.2000
The sales of conditioners in 1995 was by what per centÂ less than the sales of shampoos in 1995?'(Rounded off toÂ the nearest integer)
Correct
Incorrect
Required %= %= 36%

Question 40 of 40
40. Question
1 pointsA cosmetic company produces five different products. The sales of these fiveÂ products (in lakh number of packs) during 1995 andÂ 2000 a,re shown. in the following bargraph. TheÂ question s given below are based on this graph.
Sales (in lakh number of packs) of Five DifferentÂ
Products of a Cosmetic Company during 1995 and.2000
What is the approximate ratio of the sales of nailÂ enamels in 2000 to the sales of talcum powders in 1995?
Correct
Incorrect
Required ratio=
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